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The Power of Human Thinking: Language Understanding and Speaking Disorders

1. Introduction

Both Mont Blanc poem by Percy Shelley and the book of Roman Jakobson Two aspects of language and two types of disturbances, discuss the power of human thinking. The first one is the capacity of Language to express our thoughts, emotions, experiences and the second one is the ability to manipulate symbols in an orderly way to understand or create new meaning. Language understanding and speaking disorders can be described as aphasia.
Aphasia is a disturbance of the ability to use or comprehend words. It can affect both children and adults. There are many different types of aphasia, depending on which area(s) of the brain are damaged.
The most common type of aphasia is expressive aphasia, also called Broca’s aphasia. People with this type of aphasia have difficulty speaking. They may be able to understand what others say but have trouble finding the right words to express their own ideas.
Receptive aphasia, also called Wernicke’s aphasia, is another common type of aphasia. People with receptive aphasia have trouble understanding what others say. They may be able to speak but their speech may not make sense or be hard to follow.
Global aphasia is the most severe type of aphasia. People with global aphasia have difficulty with both speaking and understanding. They may also have trouble with reading and writing.
There are many other less common types of aphasia as well. Some people may have trouble with only certain types of words, such as names or verbs. Others may have very specific symptoms, such as being able to understand only single words but not sentences
Aphasia can be caused by many different things, including:
• stroke
• head injury
• brain tumor
• dementia
• infection
Aphasia can also be present at birth (congenital) or develop slowly over time (developmental).
Most people with aphasia will improve over time with treatment. However, some people will never regain full language skills. Aphasia is not contagious and does not affect intelligence.

2. The Power of Human Thinking

The capacity of Language to express our thoughts, emotions, experiences and the ability to manipulate symbols in an orderly way to understand or create new meaning is the power of human thinking. The ability to think is what sets us apart from other animals. It is the foundation of our intelligence and our creativity.
Thinking allows us to solve problems, plan for the future, and understand the world around us. It is the basis of all human behavior.
There are two types of thinking: convergent and divergent.
Convergent thinking is when we focus on one specific thing and come up with a single answer. This type of thinking is often used in problem-solving situations.
Divergent thinking is when we generate multiple ideas from a single starting point. This type of thinking is often used in creative situations.
Both types of thinking are important for different reasons. Convergent thinking is important for solving problems quickly and efficiently. Divergent thinking is important for generating new ideas and being creative.
Most people use both types of thinking all the time without even realizing it. For example, when you are trying to come up with a new idea for a project at work, you might first brainstorm by yourself (divergent thinking). Then, once you have a few ideas, you might start to focus on one specific idea and think about how to make it better (convergent thinking).

3. Language Understanding and Speaking Disorders
3.1 Aphasia

Aphasia is a disturbance of the ability to use or comprehend words. It can affect both children and adults. There are many different types of aphasia, depending on which area(s) of the brain are damaged.
The most common type of aphasia is expressive aphasia, also called Broca’s aphasia. People with this type of aphasia have difficulty speaking. They may be able to understand what others say but have trouble finding the right words to express their own ideas.
Receptive aphasia, also called Wernicke’s aphasia, is another common type of aphasia. People with receptive aphasia have trouble understanding what others say. They may be able to speak but their speech may not make sense or be hard to follow.
Global aphasia is the most severe type of aphasia. People with global aphasia have difficulty with both speaking and understanding. They may also have trouble with reading and writing.
There are many other less common types of aphasia as well. Some people may have trouble with only certain types of words, such as names or verbs. Others may have very specific symptoms, such as being able to understand only single words but not sentences
Aphasia can be caused by many different things, including:
• stroke
• head injury
• brain tumor
• dementia
• infection
Aphasia can also be present at birth (congenital) or develop slowly over time (developmental). Most people with aphasia will improve over time with treatment. However, some people will never regain full language skills. Aphasia is not contagious and does not affect intelligence.

3. 2 Language Disturbance

A language disturbance is any problem with the way a person uses language. It can affect both spoken and written language. Language disturbances can make it hard for a person to:
• understand what others are saying
• find the right words to express their own ideas
• put their thoughts into words
There are many different types of language disturbances, depending on which area(s) of the brain are damaged. The most common type of language disturbance is aphasia. Aphasia is a disturbance of the ability to use or comprehend words. It can affect both children and adults. There are many different types of aphasia, depending on which area(s) of the brain are damaged.
Other types of language disturbances include:
• dysarthria
• dysfluency
• aphasia
• dyslexia
Language disturbances can be caused by many different things, including:
• stroke
• head injury
• brain tumor
• dementia
• infection
Aphasia can also be present at birth (congenital) or develop slowly over time (developmental). Most people with aphasia will improve over time with treatment. However, some people will never regain full language skills. Aphasia is not contagious and does not affect intelligence.4. Hughlings Jackson
Hughlings Jackson was a British neurologist who is best known for his work on the nature of the nervous system. He is considered one of the founders of modern neurology.
Jackson’s most important contribution to neurology was his theory of hierarchical levels of function in the nervous system. This theory proposed that the nervous system is organized in a series of levels, each of which controls a different type of function.
The lowest level controls the most basic functions, such as breathing and heart rate. The highest level controls the most complex functions, such as thinking and speaking.
damage to the nervous system results in a loss of function at that level. For example, damage to the lowest level can cause paralysis, while damage to the highest level can cause aphasia.
Jackson’s theory was based on his observations of patients with brain damage. He noticed that certain types of damage always resulted in the same types of symptoms.
For example, he observed that damage to the left side of the brain always caused problems with language, while damage to the right side never did. This led him to conclude that language function must be controlled by the left side of the brain.
Jackson’s theory of hierarchical levels of function in the nervous system was revolutionary at the time and is still an important part of neurology today.

5. Roman Jakobson

Roman Jakobson was a Czech linguist who is best known for his work on the structure of language. He is considered one of the founders of modern linguistics.
Jakobson’s most important contribution to linguistics was his theory of linguistic functions. This theory proposed that there are six different functions of language:
• the referential function
• the emotive function
• the conative function
• the phatic function
• the metalingual function
• the poetic function
each of which serves a different purpose.
The referential function is the most basic function of language. It is used to communicate information about the world. The referential function is what we use when we are giving someone directions or telling them about our day.
The emotive function is used to communicate emotion. It is what we use when we are expressing our feelings or emotions. The emotive function is often used in poetry or music.
The conative function is used to influence the behavior of others. It is what we use when we are trying to persuade someone to do something or when we are giving them a command.
The phatic function is used to establish communication with others. It is what we use when we are saying “hello” or “goodbye.” The phatic function is also used when we are small talk or making conversation.
The metalingual function is used to talk about language itself. It is what we use when we are discussing grammar or vocabulary. The metalingual function is often used by linguists and teachers.
The poetic function is used to create meaning that is not directly related to the world around us. It is what we use when we are being creative or when we are using language in a non-literal way. The poetic function is often used in literature and art.
Jakobson’s theory of linguistic functions has

FAQ

Language understanding and speaking disorders are conditions that make it difficult for a person to understand or use spoken language.

These disorders can affect a person's ability to communicate with others, making it difficult to have conversations or follow instructions.

The cause of these disorders is often unknown, but they may be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

These disorders are typically diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist using tests of language skills and abilities.

There are various treatments available for language understanding and speaking disorders, including speech therapy, occupational therapy, and medication.

There are some risks associated with treatment for these disorders, such as side effects from medication or the possibility of not responding to treatment.

The prognosis for people with language understanding and speaking disorders varies depending on the severity of the disorder and how well the person responds to treatment.

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