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The Effects of Spontaneous Recovery on Classical and Operant Conditioning

1. Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to analyze spontaneous recovery. Spontaneous recovery is the recurrence of responses associated with certain unconditioned stimuli that had faced extinction. In other words, it is the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest or absence of the conditioned stimulus. This phenomenon was first discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov and has since been studied extensively in the field of classical conditioning.

It is important to note that spontaneous recovery is not the same as relapse, which is the recurrence of a learned behavior after a period of abstinence or punishment. Relapse is a type of negative reinforcement, while spontaneous recovery is a type of positive reinforcement. Spontaneous recovery occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer present and the unconditioned stimulus is reintroduced, while relapse occurs when the conditioned stimulus is reintroduced and the unconditioned stimulus is no longer present.

2. Classical Conditioning

2.1 Spontaneous Recovery

As mentioned earlier, spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest or absence of the conditioned stimulus. It was first discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov and has since been studied extensively in the field of classical conditioning.

Pavlov conducted numerous experiments on dogs in order to study classical conditioning. In one experiment, he presented them with food (unconditioned stimulus) and rang a bell (conditioned stimulus) at the same time. After doing this numerous times, he found that the dogs began to associate the bell with food and would start to salivate (conditioned response) when they heard it, even when there was no food present.

Pavlov then conducted another experiment in which he rang the bell without presenting food (extinction). He found that after a period of time, the dogs would stop salivating when they heard the bell (extinguished conditioned response). However, if he waited long enough and then rang the bell again (reintroduction of conditioned stimulus), the dogs would start salivating again (spontaneous recovery).

Pavlov’s experiments showed that classical conditioning is a process by which an animal or person learns to associate a particular stimulus with a particular response. It also showed that once an association has been learned, it can be unlearned (extinction) but can also be re-learned (spontaneous recovery).

2. 2 Types of Extinction

There are two types of extinction: partial extinction and complete extinction. Partial extinction occurs when the conditioned response decreases but does not disappear entirely; complete extinction occurs when the conditioned response disappears entirely. In other words, partial extinction is when the animal or person still responds to the conditioned stimulus but not as strongly as before; complete extinction is when the animal or person no longer responds to the conditioned stimulus at all.
Extinction can also be divided into two types: latent extinction and spontaneous recovery. Latent extinction occurs when there is a delay between exposure to the unconditioned stimulus and presentation of the conditioned stimulus; spontaneous recovery occurs when there is no delay between exposure to the unconditioned stimulus and presentation of the conditioned stimulus. In other words, latent extinction refers to learning that takes place during exposure to the unconditioned stimulus, while spontaneous recovery refers to learning that takes place after exposure to the unconditioned stimulus.

3. Operant Conditioning

3.1 Spontaneous Recovery

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which an animal or person learns to associate a particular behavior with a particular consequence. The most common type of operant conditioning is positive reinforcement, which is when a desirable consequence (reinforcer) is presented after a desired behavior is displayed.

For example, if a child is given a toy (reinforcer) after she says please (behavior), she is likely to say please more often in the future because she knows it will result in her getting a toy.

Negative reinforcement is another type of operant conditioning, which is when an undesirable consequence (punisher) is removed after a desired behavior is displayed. For example, if a child is allowed to leave the table (punisher) after she finishes her dinner (behavior), she is likely to eat her dinner more often in the future because she knows it will result in her being able to leave the table.

Extinction, which was discussed earlier in the context of classical conditioning, also occurs in operant conditioning. Extinction in operant conditioning refers to the termination of a learned behavior in response to the removal of the reinforcing stimulus. For example, if a child is no longer given a toy (reinforcing stimulus) after she says please (behavior), she is likely to stop saying please because there is no longer any reinforcement for that behavior.

Like classical conditioning, operant conditioning also involves spontaneous recovery. Spontaneous recovery in operant conditioning refers to the reappearance of a learned behavior after a period of rest or absence of the reinforcing stimulus. For example, if a child who has been saying please for reinforcement stops being given toys (reinforcing stimulus), she may stop saying please for awhile. However, if she is then exposed to the reinforcing stimulus again (e.g., if someone gives her a toy), she is likely to start saying please again (spontaneous recovery).

3. 2 Types of Extinction

There are two types of extinction in operant conditioning: partial extinction and complete extinction. Partial extinction occurs when the learned behavior decreases but does not disappear entirely; complete extinction occurs when the learned behavior disappears entirely. In other words, partial extinction is when the animal or person still responds to the reinforcing stimulus but not as strongly as before; complete extinction is when the animal or person no longer responds to the reinforcing stimulus at all.
Extinction can also be divided into two types: latent extinction and spontaneous recovery. Latent extinction occurs when there is a delay between exposure to the reinforcing stimulus and presentation of the learned behavior; spontaneous recovery occurs when there is no delay between exposure to the reinforcing stimulus and presentation of the learned behavior. In other words, latent extinction refers to learning that takes place during exposure to the reinforcing stimulus, while spontaneous recovery refers to learning that takes place after exposure to the reinforcing stimulus.

4. Punishment

4.1 Spontaneous Recovery

Punishment is a type of operant conditioning in which an undesirable consequence (punisher) is presented after an undesired behavior is displayed. The most common type of punishment is positive punishment, which is when an undesirable consequence (punisher) is added after an undesired behavior is displayed. For example, if a child is spanked (punisher) after she hits her sister (behavior), she is likely to hit her sister less often in the future because she knows it will result in her being spanked.

Negative punishment is another type of operant conditioning, which is when a desirable consequence (reinforcer) is removed after an undesired behavior is displayed. For example, if a child is not allowed to watch TV (reinforcer) after she hits her sister (behavior), she is likely to hit her sister less often in the future because she knows it will result in her not being able to watch TV.

Extinction, which was discussed earlier in the context of classical and operant conditioning, also occurs in punishment. Extinction in punishment refers to the termination of an undesired behavior in response to the removal of the punishing stimulus. For example, if a child is no longer spanked (punishing stimulus) after she hits her sister (behavior), she is likely to stop hitting her sister because there is no longer any punishment for that behavior.

Like classical and operant conditioning, punishment also involves spontaneous recovery. Spontaneous recovery in punishment refers to the reappearance of an undesired behavior after a period of rest or absence of the punishing stimulus. For example, if a child who has been hitting her sister for punishment stops being spanked (punishing stimulus), she may stop hitting her sister for awhile. However, if she is then exposed to the punishing stimulus again (e.g., if someone gives her a spanking), she is likely to start hitting her sister again (spontaneous recovery).

4. 2 Types of Extinction

There are two types of extinction in punishment: partial extinction and complete extinction. Partial extinction occurs when the undesired behavior decreases but does not disappear entirely; complete extinction occurs when the undesired behavior disappears entirely. In other words, partial extinction is when the animal or person still responds to the punishing stimulus but not as strongly as before; complete extinction is when the animal or person no longer responds to the punishing stimulus at all.
Extinction can also be divided into two types: latent extinction and spontaneous recovery. Latent extinction occurs when there is a delay between exposure to the punishing stimulus and presentation of the undesired behavior; spontaneous recovery occurs when there is no delay between exposure to the punishing stimulus and presentation of the undesired behavior. In other words, latent extinction refers to learning that takes place during exposure to the punishing stimulus, while spontaneous recovery refers to learning that takes place after exposure to the punishing stimulus.

5. Electric Shock

5.1 Spontaneous Recovery

Electric shock is a type of classical conditioning in which an electric current (unconditioned stimulus) is applied to the body after a particular stimulus (conditioned stimulus) has been presented. The most common type of electric shock is positive reinforcement, which is when a desirable

FAQ

Classical conditioning is a type of learning that occurs when an animal or person learns to associate a particular stimulus with a particular response.

Spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning is the reappearance of a learned response after a period of time during which the response has not been elicited.

Spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning occurs because the original association between the stimulus and the response has not been forgotten, even though it may be dormant for awhile. When the stimulus is presented again, theresponse reappears.

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