The Effects of Energy Drinks on Aggressive Behavior
Nowadays, people all around the world consume more and more energy drinks to cope with everyday challenges and for different purposes. The number of brands and flavors is increasing, as well as the number of countries where these drinks are available (Reissig et al., 2009). Despite the fact that the market for these products is constantly growing, there is a lack of evidence-based research on the effects of these drinks on human health. The few existing studies on this topic are mostly based on survey data and focus on caffeine intake from all sources, not just energy drinks (Reissig et al., 2009). Given the global popularity of energy drinks, it is important to gain a better understanding of their potential effects on human health.
The main purpose of the proposal research is to conduct the influence of energy drinks based on caffeine on people’s psychological condition. Thecaffeine in energy drinks can lead to increased alertness and physical activity (Reissig et al., 2009). However, it can also lead to side effects such as anxiety, jitteriness, and heart palpitations (Reissig et al., 2009). Moreover, little is known about how energy drink consumption affects aggressive behavior. Some researchers suggest that energy drink consumption may be associated with increased aggression (Engelmann et al., 2013; Reissig et al., 2009). However, there is no clear evidence to support this claim. The current study will address this gap in the literature by investigating the relationship between energy drink consumption and aggression.
2. Literature Review
In order to understand how energy drink consumption may be associated with aggression, it is important to first understand what aggression is and how it is measured. Aggression is a multidimensional construct that can be defined in terms of both its physical and verbal components (Berkowitz, 1993). Physical aggression refers to acts of violence or threats of violence against another person or object (Berkowitz, 1993). Verbal aggression refers to words or actions that are intended to hurt or scare another person (Berkowitz, 1993). There are many different ways to measure aggression. One common way to measure physical aggression is through observational coding schemes that assesses the frequency and severity of aggressive acts (Berkowitz, 1993). Another common way to measure aggression is self-report questionnaires that ask participants about their aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Berkowitz, 1993).
A variety of factors have been found to be associated with increased levels of aggression. For example, age has been found to be a significant predictor of aggression, with older adults tending to be more aggressive than younger adults (Archer, 2004). Gender has also been found to be a significant predictor of aggression, with males tending to be more aggressive than females (Archer, 2004). In addition, personality factors such as low agreeableness and high neuroticism have been found to be associated with increased aggression (Archer, 2004). Moreover, contextual factors such as exposure to violence and poverty have also been found to predict higher levels of aggression (Archer, 2004).
Although a number of risk factors for aggression have been identified, little is known about how energy drink consumption may be related to this behavior. Some researchers have suggested that energy drink consumption may be associated with increased aggressive behavior (Engelmann et al., 2013; Reissig et al., 2009). For example, one study found that energy drink consumers were more likely to endorse aggressive thoughts and behaviors than non-consumers (Engelmann et al., 2013). Another study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased physical aggression, but not verbal aggression, in a laboratory setting (Reissig et al., 2009). However, these studies have several limitations. First, they are based on self-reported data, which may be subject to biases such as social desirability bias. Second, they have only investigated the association between energy drink consumption and aggression in general, without examining the specific relationship between energy drink consumption and different types of aggression.
The current study will address these limitations by investigating the relationship between energy drink consumption and different types of aggression in a laboratory setting. This will provide a more controlled environment in which to study this relationship and will allow for a more nuanced understanding of how energy drink consumption is related to aggression. Additionally, the use of self-report measures in the current study will help to offset some of the limitations of previous research in this area.
The current study will be a laboratory experiment with a 2×2 factorial design. The independent variables will be energy drink condition (energy drink vs. no energy drink) and aggression task (physical aggression vs. verbal aggression). The dependent variable will be aggressive behavior, which will be measured using an observational coding scheme. The participants will be 100 college students who will be randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. The participants will be asked to consume either an energy drink or a placebo beverage and then complete either a physical aggression task or a verbal aggression task. The physical aggression task will involve hitting a punching bag, and the verbal aggression task will involve completing an insult generation task. After completing the tasks, the participants’ aggressive behaviors will be coded by trained observers.
4. Data Analysis and Findings
The data will be analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. The results of these analyses will be used to examine the main effects of energy drink condition and aggression task on aggressive behavior, as well as the interaction between these two variables.
5. Discussion and Conclusion
The results of the current study will contribute to our understanding of how energy drink consumption is related to aggression. This understanding is important given the global popularity of energy drinks and the lack of research on their potential effects on human health.