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Inter-group interactions and coping: similar processes. A similar base?

1. Introduction

The paper analyzes the article “Inter-group interactions and coping: similar processes. A similar base?” by Gerald Delelis and Caroline Desombre. The authors investigate whether there are similarities between the processes of coping with emotional situations in different groups. To do this, they review the literature on emotional situations and coping, as well as on social support and derogation of others. The authors conclude that there are indeed similarities between the processes of coping with emotional situations in different groups.

2. Literature review

2.1 Emotional situations

The authors begin by reviewing the literature on emotional situations. They define emotional situations as “situations that threaten or exceed our resources and that we experience as a source of negative affect” (Delelis & Desombre, 2018, p. 2). Emotional situations can be either short-lived or long-lasting. They can also be either internal or external to the individual. Short-lived emotional situations are typically caused by external events, such as a traffic jam or a fight with a friend, while long-lasting emotional situations are typically caused by internal events, such as chronic illness or bereavement (Delelis & Desombre, 2018).

2. 2 Coping with emotional situations

The authors then review the literature on coping with emotional situations. They define coping as “the set of cognitive and behavioural efforts made to manage stressful events” (Delelis & Desombre, 2018, p. 3). Coping can be either adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive coping is defined as “coping that leads to positive outcomes, such as reduction in distress or enhancement of well-being” (Delelis & Desombre, 2018, p. 3). Maladaptive coping is defined as “coping that leads to negative outcomes, such as increased distress or impaired well-being” (Delelis & Desombre, 2018, p. 3). The authors note that people typically use a mix of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies in response to emotional situations (Delelis & Desombre, 2018).

2. 3 Social support

The authors then review the literature on social support. Social support is defined as “any form of assistance provided by other people in order to cope with an emotional situation” (Delelis & Desombre, 2018, p. 4). Social support can be either tangible or intangible. Tangible forms of social support include financial assistance and practical help, while intangible forms of social support include emotional support and social companionship (Delelis & Desombre, 2018). The authors note that social support is typically more effective when it is tangible rather than intangible (Delelis & Desombre, 2018).

2. 4 Derogation of others

The authors then review the literature on derogation of others. Derogation is defined as “any negative evaluation of another person or group” (Delelis & Desombre, 2018, p. 5). Derogation can be either overt or covert. Overt derogation is defined as “derogation that is expressed openly and without restraint”, while covert derogation is defined as “derogation that is expressed indirectly or through subtle behaviours” (Delelis & Desombre, 2018, p. 5). The authors note that people typically use a mix of overt and covert derogation strategies in response to emotional situations (Delelis & Desombre, 2018).

3. Conclusion

The authors conclude that there are indeed similarities between the processes of coping with emotional situations in different groups. They suggest that future research should focus on identifying the specific mechanisms underlying these similarities.

FAQ

Individuals in different groups interact with each other in a variety of ways, depending on the specific group or groups involved. Some common types of interactions include cooperation, competition, and conflict.

The consequences of these interactions can be positive or negative, depending on the nature of the interaction and the particular individuals involved. Positive consequences might include increased understanding and communication between groups, while negative consequences could include tension, hostility, and even violence.

People cope with being a member of multiple groups in different ways, depending on their personal preferences and experiences. Some people find it enriching to belong to multiple groups, while others may find it stressful or overwhelming.

The benefits of belonging to multiple groups can include exposure to new ideas and perspectives, increased social support, and a sense of belongingness. However, there can also be drawbacks such as pressure to conform to multiple sets of expectations and a heightened risk of experiencing conflict between group memberships.

Social identity can affect inter-group interactions in both positive and negative ways. On the one hand, social identity can provide a sense of unity and purpose that can help facilitate cooperative behavior between groups. On the other hand, social identity can also lead to prejudice and discrimination against members of out-groups.

There are certain types of people who are more likely to experience negative outcomes as a result of group membership, including minorities, immigrants, and other marginalized groups. Additionally, people who have less social support or who are already experiencing stress in their lives may be more vulnerable to the negative effects of group membership.

There are a number of things that can be done to improve inter-group relations and reduce negative coping mechanisms. Some examples include increasing contact between members of different groups, promoting positive stereotypes of out-groups, and providing support for individuals who belong to multiple groups.

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